Year of grant:
2014

Research Area:
Náttúra og náttúrutilfeingi

Project type:
Ph.d.verkætlan

Project title:
Samanseting og vistfrøði av smáveru samfeløgum á sjófjøllum og bankum í Indiska havinum

Grant number:
0438

Project manager:
Anni Djurhuus

Institution/company:
Oxford University

Other participants:
Alex Rogers, Svein-Ole Mikalsen, Jane Read, Helge Ansgar-Giebel, Jack Gilbert and Jarrad Hampton-Marcell

Project period:
10.2011-10.2015

Total budget:
1312532

Grant from the FRC in DKK:
298.765 kr.

Project description:
Original
Microbial Communities Structure and Ecology on Seamounts at the Southwest Indian Ridge

Microorganisms form a major component within oceanic food webs and exert a controlling influence on most ocean biogeochemical cycles. Communities of bacteria, archaea, protists, and unicellular fungi form a significant fraction of oceanic biomass. Among them, bacteria are the most abundant group. However, the diversity of marine microbial communities at a range of spatial scales is not well understood. This has critical implications for understanding the impacts of climate change on the trophic ecology and biogeochemistry of the oceans. This is because climate change effects on the oceans, specifically warming, acidification and increasing hypoxia will change the distribution, activity and composition of microbial communities, influencing biogeochemical cycles and potentially having both positive and negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 levels.

In the deep sea, bacterial biomass becomes an important component of the total plankton biomass and bacteria play key roles in processes such as degradation of organic material, nitrification and denitrification. Here we propose to investigate the patterns of distribution of microbial communities at a range of spatial scales, between oceans (~1000km), across water masses (~100km) and finally, locally, amongst seamount ecosystems and hydrothermal vents (~1km). Coupled with an extensive environmental dataset this will provide important information on how environmental parameters influence microbial communities across these spatial scales. This will increase our understanding in how changes in the physical environment may influence such communities in the future.

More than 450 microbial community samples were obtained around seamounts of the Southwest Indian Ridge and hydrothermal vents at East Scotia Ridge with the spatial scale of sampling spanning from kilometers to thousands of kilometers. We propose the application of next generation sequencing for microbial community analysis and the utilization of excitation flow cytometry data to determine the abundance of microbes in water samples. Environmental drivers of microbial community ecology will be investigated across multiple scales from localized seamount effects to basin-scale biological oceanography. This project will also be the first describing microbial communities at the SWIR and one of the few projects ever conducted on microbial communities associated with seamounts at both local and regional scales.

Final
Verkætlanin ”Microbial Oceanography of southern hemisphere seamounts and hydrothermal vents” fór fram í Indiska Havinum og Suður havinum. Í Indiska havinum vórðu fýra sjófjøll granskað fyri smáverur og umhvørvið tær eru í. Funnið varð útav, hvat fyri smáverur vórðu til staðar, og hvussu tær spreiða seg við umhvørvinum. Smáverur eru tengdar at umhvørvinum, og kunnu ikki aktivt flyta seg frá einum stað til eitt annað. Tær vera fluttar runt í sjónum tær halda til, tí kunnu tær nýtast sum ein indikator uppá sjógvmassa. Í Indiska havinum funnu vit, at smáverurnar broytast við dýpi, og, at tvørtur um ein sjóðarfront eru ymiskar smáverur hvørju megin frontin og í frontinum.
Frá undirsjóvar skorsteinum funnu vit, at har eru serligar smáverur, ið nýta hydrogen sum føðsluevni. Hydrogen er serliga nógv av runt um hesar skorsteinarnar. Smáverurna eru so spesifikkar, at tær trívast bert nær við opið av skorsteinunum. Tað vísir seg, at smáverur frá ymiskum skorsteinum eru ymiskar millum skorsteinar. Tey sløgini, ið trívast best runt um hesar skorsteinar, eru burtur nakrar fáar metrar frá, ið vísir á at hesar eru adapteraðar til akkurát hetta umhvørvið.

Project status:
Liðug

Project output:
Vísindaligar greinar, bøkur, ritgerðir v.m.:
The spatial distribution of particulate organic carbon and microoganisms on seamounts of the South West Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.11.015.

Útvarpssammrøða varð hildin meðan Anni Djurhuus var í feltinum í Suðurhavinum. Samrøðan var um hvussu lívið er umborð á granskingarskipum, og hvussu tað var at halda jól og nýtt ár uttanfyri Antarktis.



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