Incidens af thyroideasygdomme på Færøerne
01.11.2009 - 31.08.2011
Stuðul úr Granskingargrunninum:
For høj eller for lav produktion af thyroideahormoner, hhv. hyper- og hypothyroidisme, er en af de hyppigste endokrinologiske sygdomme (stofskiftesygdomme) i den vestlige verden. Forekomsten har vist sig at hænge sammen med blandt andet køn og jodindtagelse. På Færøerne er der ikke før lavet incidensundersøgelser og der findes således ikke et grundlag at bygge videre forskning på og ingen mulighed for at sammenligne med andre lande. Dette projekt går ud på at beregne incidensen af hyper- og hypothyroidisme på Færøerne. De nye tilfælde vil blive fundet og registreret ved at undersøge laboratoriedata fra laboratoriet på Landssygehuset og receptdata fra Landsapotekeren, dette i en begrænset periode fra 2006 til og med 2010. Formålet er at tilvejebringe disse grundlæggende data, der skal bruges som udgangspunkt at bygge videre forskning på.
A normal metabolism is important for the function of the body. If it is too high or too low, it will affect all the organic systems and often it manifests in many unspecific symptoms. After diabetes the most common endocrinological disease is thyroid disease. The thyroid gland secretes the hormones T4 and T3 which control the metabolism. The thyroid gland is controlled by the hormone TSH which is secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain. These can all be measured in blood tests Iodine is important for the thyroid as 65 % of T4 consists of it. Research has shown that in countries with low iodine intake, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism is higher and in countries with high iodine intake, the prevalence of hypothyroidism is higher Hyper- and hypothyroidism can be treated medically, and hyperthyroidism can also be treated surgically and with radioactive therapy The purpose of this project is to investigate the annual incidence of thyroid disease on the Faroe Islands in a 5 year period (from 2006 till 2010) This has not been done before, and the aim is that it will provide a basis for further research.
Incident cases were principally found from a list with all the prescriptions for thyroid medicine dispensed from all the pharmacies in the Faroe Islands in the period from june 2004 until dec. 2010. The ones who received medicin before 1/1-2006 were excluded. To validate the data we also searched the lab. results of the subjects found. If the lab. results didn.t correspond to what was expected for hyper-or hypothyroidism, they were investigated further to make sure that the disease really started the year they started medical treatment. If not, they were excluded. It was also investigated how many received radioactive therapy or surgery. These treatments are managed by the national hospital, so the subjects could be found by looking at the diagnoses on the discharge lists.
In the 5 year period from 2006 till 2010, 409 incident cases were found. 123 with hyperthyroidism and 286 with hypothyroidism. The sexratio men:women was about 1:3 and most often the disease debuted in the age of 40-60 years. These numbers also include subclinical cases, meaning subjects who received treatment even though only TSH was abnormal, while T4 and T3 stayed within normal range. These cases are not included in Danish statistics and therefore had to be subtracted for comparison. After exclusion of subclinical cases the incidence was: hypothyroidism: 33 cases / year, hyperthyroidism: 22 cases / year. This incidence of hypothyroidism is about 50 % higher than in Denmark and as for the hyperthyroidism the incidence is about 50 % lower.
Compared to Danish statistics there is a significantly higher incidence of hypothyroidism, and a significantly lower incidence of hyperthyroidism on the Faroe Islands. This could indicate that there is a higher intake of iodine, but other reasons can also exist. More detailed information on this subject will require a more comprehensive research project.
Fyribils: Framløga á Vísindavøku 2011.
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